I have spent many years investigating effective instruction around oral presentations supported by modern educational tools and have found a dearth of materials and studies. This article presents a key recurring observation about the way we teach oral presentations. Students must be our starting point, and be provided with very general reflective tools and structures applicable to a wide variety of situations in order to facilitate them attaining their own goals successfully.
Educators use a process for planning what will occur in class. Then they evaluate the results when put into action by reflecting and collaborating, teachers ensure continual improvement. The PIERS perspective highlights this iterative and ongoing nature of the planning process: Plan, Implement, Evaluate, Reflect, and Share. PIERS will assist with this process.
A balance between curriculum and instructional design exists for each project. Curriculum and instructional design encompass overlapping areas of work. The scope of work depends upon the parameters in each situation. Typically the level of design and layers that exist dictate what individuals and groups complete which sections of the work.
In course design, instructors are charged with enacting the curriculum and its plans. Course design requires the instructor to develop materials to teach the given content. The interface between curriculum and instructional design provides a context to examine key factors to effective design. This is particularly true in a course designed with a learner-centered focus. Thus Curriculum and instructional design (CID) should be understood as a continuum of design. Finally, this leads to plans for a more effective and coherent course for students.
There are many ways to approach and develop a curriculum or plan for learning at different levels of complexity. Though some practitioners approach the design of instruction from a specific starting point like content to be taught, method of delivery, learning context, etc; this will not be specified. Instead, key concepts will be presented and you will be able to choose your own way of approaching how you plan and design curricular materials at all levels. We will examine the Critical Learning Path (CLP) and Constructive Alignment for Learning (CAL).
Many researchers have espoused different philosophies about how education should be implemented at the various levels of Curriculum and Instructional Design (CID). Debates about the right path range from the largest level of what is to be taught to the specific aspects of how instruction should be conducted. A key concept that connects to all levels of CID is Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK).
Research has examined the elements needed to be included in a curriculum as well as how they are interconnected. Several essential terms are defined below that help you understand these ideas. The terms that will be explained are; Scope and Sequence, Articulation, Coordination, Continuity, and Coherence.