Presentations: Elements of GOALS Components

Oral presentations utilizing digital technology, especially video, need to consider how best to integrate delivery with content. The key components to consider are the GOALS or Graphic/visuals, Oral, Alignment, Lucidity, and Synthesis. This article described a series of elements that comprise each of these major components.


Creating an effective communication package requires consideration of many different areas. As the creator, your overall effectiveness depends on many factors discussed in other articles. You must consider overall effectiveness, your aims, and your own limits as well as what your target audience will experience and interact with the package you created. Overall effectiveness is the measure of any presentation to judge how well the content and delivery attain the desired goal with a specified target audience in a given situation. Within that, oral presentations utilizing digital technology, especially video, become more effective when these aspects are integrated. This article explores the elements of the GOALS components of overall effectiveness

Sharper focus through video in presentations

Effective communication balances visual (shown) elements with those spoken aspects. However, in oral presentations, the degree to which things are shown vary greatly in the level of detail, quality, and style. It becomes more important to support what is said with visual elements as the content grows in complexity and length. Eventually, the relationship of simple pieces conveys meaning.

Elements of the GOALS Components

When planning for overall effectiveness the following articles: the phases of production, as well as the components of effectively integrated productions describe the breakdown of the category of overall effectiveness to aid presenters to understand areas that lead to more effective final products utilizing integrated delivery of content. In turn, each of those components relies upon particular elements. These elements describe essential areas within each component and are themselves comprised of more focused aspects. The specific indicators are very narrow topics of concern set within the larger areas of concern. The tables below provide the breakdown for each element of the GOALS components. In a way to help presenters, coaches, and or critics to measure the levels of effectiveness.

G- Graphics/visual: Choices concerning the components of what is shown to increase the effectiveness of the presentation to attain the goal for the given target.

Elements of Graphics/visual

This component explores the shown elements of the presentation. Graphic/visual elements must support the effective delivery of the message to attain the goal for the selected target. Overall, Graphic/visual design describes this group of concepts comprised of style, layout, composition, and relationships.

Element – Description
Style: The way general elements are combined color, typography, visuals, and theme
Layout: This is the structure and relationships of elements tied to the effective use of space and elements placed on the page relative to one another and backgrounds
Composition: The way you build up what is shown, the bringing together of objects, and aspects to show your viewer a concept and convey meaning. These aspects are used to build the final product when integrated with layout and style. The key aspects of the composition include text, drawn objects, colors, images, and graphic organizers
Relationship: The added meaning and knowledge individual items have as a result of the combining of the components of style, layout, and composition

O-Oral: All spoken aspects contributing to the effectiveness of the presentation to attain the goal for the given target.

Elements of Oral

This component explores the spoken elements of the presentation. Oral elements must support the effective delivery of the message to attain the goal for the selected target. The three elements of the oral component include Character, Diction, and Expression.

Element – DescriptionAspects
Character: The tone of voice that changes the message being conveyed and consists of key elements such as. Register, Timbre, Prosody, and Pitch Register: the range of vocal tones that can be produced which gives the speech a certain quality. Most people normally speak from their throat. However, it is preferable to speak from the chest because it adds more weight and power to the voicePitch: the varying degrees of tones that can be produced by the voice. The meaning of the speech can change depending on how low or high the pitch is
Prosody: the rhythm of speaking. Monotone and repetitive rhythms are hard to listen to. Using diverse levels prosody will add meaning to the speech
Timbre: how the voice “feels” to the ear. It defines the quality of a voice. Rich, smooth, and warm voices are preferable
Diction: Style of speaking, determined by the appropriate, accurate, and clear choice of wordsPronunciation: how clearly and accurately the words are said so they are clearly understood
Vocabulary: The collection of words being used
Word choice: the effective selection of terms for content, context, and target audience
Expression: The way words are spoken to adjust meaning and intentionEmphasis: This considers how effectively and appropriately stress is placed on words, and phrases to signify the importance
Pace: This considers the presenters overall speed of presenting and variation in thespeed of spoken words
Volume: This considers the level of the presenter’s oral delivery both for overall volume and appropriate changes throughout

A. Alignment: How well the medium, message, and intent match the context and content considering the goal and target in the given situation.

Elements of Alignment

This component explores how well the presentation matched the needs and expectations of the target to message, content, and context. The presentation must consider what the target audience will expect and the level of knowledge and prior experience that exists in relation to the content being presented.

Element – Description
Target Audience: This considers how effectively the presenter took into account demographic and other characteristics of those you are targeting: Age, Gender, Sexual Orientation, Level of education, Religion, Culture
Professionalism: This considers how effectively the presenter aligned with the target’s expectations for conduct, attitude, and norms of or the given situation to appear knowledgeable
Timing and Flow: is how you unfold your content over time taking into consideration your target audience and how you will deliver it to them

L-Lucidity: the level of clarity, accuracy, appropriateness, and completeness of the content for the context of the presentation for the target related to the desired goal.

Elements of Lucidity

This component explores the effective presentation of content for its clarity, accuracy, and completeness this considers the order of presentation for the content along with the amount and density of content.

Element – Description
Clarity: This considers how clearly and effectively the content and core message are presented and supported in the presentation tied to the goal and context
Focus: This considers how well the presentation provides relevant and necessary details to deliver the key points necessary to understand and follow the presentation
Appropriateness: This considers the sophistication and level of detail used to convey the content for the target
Completeness and accuracy: This considers if all needed aspects of content and background were accurately presented in sufficient detail

S- Synthesis: How the various aspects both in and out of the control of the presenter (technology, environmental, group dynamics, etc.) were integrated and accommodated as needed to allow for an effective presentation.

Elements of Synthesis

This component explores how well the elements work together to effectively attain the goal of the presentation. Presenters can not prepare for all aspects of the presentation ahead-of-time. Additionally, some presentations call for interactions with other people and environmental elements. Synthesis examines how well the different aspects work together and demonstrate that the presenter planned ahead and was aware of the situational variables that might impact the effectiveness of the presentation.

Element – Description
Integration of graphics with orals: This is the effective combination of any shown items including the use of images, static and dynamic graphics combined with text and other elements to effectively convey the core message. Simple (static), Complex (dynamic), and Mixed
Use of technology: This considers how effectively the presenter uses technology and deal s with issues that arise including sound, video, software, hardware, and other such issues
Group dynamics: This considers how effectively the presenter brings together all of the elements used in the presentation along with any need to work with other presenters or audience members
Response to the environment: This considers how effectively the presenter interfaces with environmental factors including ambient noise, light, distractions, or other such aspects that might appear

Elements Rating Scale (0-3)

Each of these elements utilizes the 4-point scale (0-3) for rating effectiveness. The measured examines the extent to which the element supports the effective delivery of the message to the specified target in the given situation. 

Rating / Indicator scale 
3-Effective: Use of this indicator fully support the effective presentation
2-Somewhat effective: Use of this indicator needs improvement to fully support the effective presentation
1-Somewhat ineffective: Use of this indicator has flaws and needs improvement to fully support the effective presentation
0-Not Effective-Fatally Flawed: This indicator is missing or does not support the effective presentation


This description of the elements of the GOALS criteria provides areas to consider as presenters prepare, perform, and publish their presentations. Each of these elements has even smaller items that comprise each but that is beyond most general courses. For example, if you seek more information on graphic design entire courses and programs examine that topic. Similarly, entire majors in theater and public speak examine in much greater detail the fine points of the oral component. For the integrated delivery of content in most common presentation situations, these elements are useful. When speaking of oral presentations in particular and those that use video specifically, the GOALS components prove highly useful to achieve overall effectiveness.