Presentation: Components of Effective Integrated Productions


Students need guidance and instruction in order to understand how to make any presentation more effective.  At very high levels, novice presenters focus on content and delivery.  As mastery and experience increase, these two areas become more integrated.  This leads to a need for components of an integrated delivery to aid all phases of production.  This guidance serves them as a scaffold for designing, evaluating, and refining elements of their oral presentations outside of specific content concerns.  This should prepare them with a good starting point and means of weighing options more meaningfully and with some sense of attaining an effective outcome.  

Components of effectiveness

Five common components provide insight into key areas of the integrated approach to presentations to enhance effectiveness that includes: graphic/visual Elements, oral elements, Alignment, Lucidity, and synthesis (GOALS).  GOALS identifies major areas of consideration during the phases of production for presentations contributing to the overall holistic view of the effectiveness of the work.  For online and specially recorded video, the categories described by GOALS allows students to consider areas of concern both in planning and after their performance when they seek potential improvements.  Also, these components aid students to better consider how to integrate aspects of content and delivery in order to enhance the way the content is received by the target and acted upon.

Description of Components 

Each component of GOALS  engages one major part of effective presentations.  Taken together these provide a means of enhancing the overall effectiveness or understanding where weaknesses may exist.  Not every presentation includes every component but being mindful of these components assists students in both prepare and make clear choices about what is prepared, performed, and finally published to the world (P3 citation).

G- Graphics/Visual: Choices  concerning the components of what is shown to  increase the effectiveness of the  presentation to attain the goal for the given target
O-Oral: All spoken aspects contributing to the effectiveness of the  presentation to attain the goal for the given target
A-Alignment: How well the medium, message, and intent match the context and content considering the goal and target in the given situation.
L-Lucidity: the level of clarity, accuracy, appropriateness, and completeness of the content for the context of the presentation for the target related to the desired goal.
S- Synthesis: How the various aspects  both in and out of the control of the presenter (technology, environmental, group dynamics, etc.) were  integrated and  accommodated as needed to allow for an effective presentation
Table.1- GOALS Components of overal effectivenes.

Rating Scale (1-5) for GoALS

Typically, judges use a rating scale of 1-10 when providing feedback on overall effectiveness.   However, Judging each component requires a smaller more focused scale (1-5) to provide clearer feedback and allow for comparison and improvement.  This scale seeks to measure how effectively each component enhances the overall effectiveness fo the presentation to attain the goal of delivering the message to the desired target in a given situation.

Rating number/Criterion name/Description
5-Highly Effective: Presentation demonstrates the effective use of the elements of the criteria to attain the goal
4-Somewhat Effective: Presentation demonstrates a need for minor improvements in criteria elements to attain the goal
3- Somewhat ineffective: Presentation demonstrates a need for minor improvements in criteria elements to attain the goal. Improvements are needed in several elements but all needed items are present
2-Highly Ineffective: Presentation demonstrates a need for major improvements in criteria elements and at least one is missing
1-Completely Ineffective-Fatally Flawed: Presentation demonstrates a need for a major improvement in criteria elements and/or several elements are missing.
Table 2.- GOALS components rating rubrics

Need to Delineating the Elements of each Component 

The overall effectiveness measured with the areas of content, delivery, and how well they are integrated provides a starting point.  However, focusing upon the components of the integrated delivery especially for planned oral presentations leads to the use of the GOALS criteria and the refined rating scale.  these areas can in turn be broken down to provide greater insight and scaffolding for learners as they work to improve aspects of presentation, build skills and learn how to integrate the various aspects needed for higher overall effectiveness.  with the introduction of digital video technology and its ubiquitous adoption by social media and younger generations, its use as a tool to enhance the learning and overall quality of published products call for the delineation of the narrower areas discussed below in the indicators of each of the GOALS  components of the integrated delivery leading to overall effectiveness.


In the end, every situation will dictate what is required.  Within each situation will be an idea of the goal sought and what an effective outcome will look like.  When oral presentations are call for, being prepared to understand what needs exist and what skills apply is essential.  Moreover, having a clear picture of one’s own strengths within the components of GOALS and which of its elements and aspects you can hone will lead to increased human capital, ability to present effectively, and thus, the confidence you can deal with any situations as they arise. This article presented the scaffold for understanding the components of effectiveness tied to the major areas of integrated delivery of oral presentations including graphic/visual Elements, oral elements, Alignment, Lucidity, and synthesis.


If you want to cite this blog article, please use the following:

Lipuma, J., & Leon, C. (2020, August 5). Presentation: Components of Effective Integrated Productions. James Lipuma’s blog.


If you want to download an accessible PDF copy of this blog article, use the following link: