Presentation: Production Model Roles

Students can utilize the phases of the production model (Prepare, Perform, Publish) and the tools of video to create effective presentations in learning environments.  To do this, students should understand the roles that exist and the responsibilities for each general category involved in a production.  This article discusses the following roles: producer, performer, designer, editor, judge, critic, and subject-matter expert.


A significant part of being able to prepare and deliver an effective oral presentation is how you conceive of it and your attitude towards the entire process.  One way to envision the presentation is as a production of a performance in which you may play several roles.  In the most general sense, three phases of the “P3 Model” encompass the presentation cycle:

Graphic representation of the P3 model and the Presentation cycle.

Students can utilize the tools of video and the P3 model to create effective presentations in the learning environment.

Importance of Video for the Process

Diagram of the cycle for use of video.

Video to Enhance Productions

Video offers key benefits for the teaching, delivery, and assessment of oral presentation.  Today, digital media should be integrated into class materials. Educators can create videos or obtain from third-party sources like publishers or the web. More importantly, the video serves as a way to allow students to practice and refine their oral presentations. Both formal and informal video assignments provide vehicles for skill development and a means of assessment.  

Video in Phases of Productions

First, is the private review characterized by an individual practicing in a mirror?  With modern technology, we are able to allow each of you to record a private video or even have an automated system give you private feedback.  Once you are comfortable with your performance the next step is a limited release which has two parts—internal and external.  The internal version has you perform for a roommate, parent friend, or other people you know.  Often a coach may see the internal limited release as well and when ready move you to the external release.  In this case, you are running the performance by a test audience.  Finally, when the performance goes fully public, it is meant to be seen by everyone and acted upon by the target audience in the way the presenter planned.

Ways to Utilize Video 

As a tool to practice presentations, the video serves as a mirror to show students what they do.  As a first means of sharing rough work, video allows students to share with low stakes.  Video provides a record for students to show progress while allowing educators a way to note specific times for future review with time codes and specific reviewable moments.  Finally, all the videos can be collected into a   portfolio of development or best practices to capture what has happened over time.  In this way, the video begins as a mirror and then is a window into the student’s work. Eventually, the video serves as a door to a room in which the student showcases work that itself can be added to an entire house full of student artifacts and accomplishments in the gallery of their academic accomplishment.

Use of Video to Aid Production 

During these phases, there is the potential for many different consultants and role players to be involved.  Often a single person will have to assume many different roles (especially in smaller and lower-budget productions). The roles can be very task-specific but fall into general categories aligned with the needs of production.  If the presentation is live and synchronous the emphasis on some phases and roles will be different than if you are making a recording.  Though video allows you to create multiple attempts, edit in post-production as well as add in effects, you are not able to receive feedback directly from your targets In the live performance, you have the advantage of being able to adjust to meet the needs of the target and situation but each time you want to present you need to do it over and create a performance from scratch.

Production Model Roles

When moving through the phases of production students should understand the relevant roles and responsibilities involved. Students normally only see themselves as performers to increase effectiveness; they should expand their thinking to encompass all the roles. For our purposes, there are the following roles:

Graphic representation of the production roles.

1. Performer: the individual(s) actually presenting.

2. Producer: The person charged with overseeing all phases of the project and bringing in needed support, materials and expertise.

3. Subject Matter Expert (SME) / Coach: The person who has the expertise and ability to help the presenter respond to criticism to improve the product as well as enhance skills of the presenter. They bring particular expertise on content, delivery and or integration in order to increase overall effectiveness.

4. Designer/ Editor: A specialist who can create and revise content and materials to augment the quality and meet the overall vision of the production to make it more presentable for consumption by the target audience. They bring skill and expertise to enhance storytelling to creating and revision of materials.

5. Critic/ Judge: The person or group(s) that measure and critique the performance and typically provide a rating.

Tasks in the Phases of Production

Graphic representation of the presentation process.

In phase 1 you are tasked with researching and creating the content to be delivered, understanding the target audience,  scouting the locations, preparing any needed materials and locations, as well as developing scripts,  props, handouts, and other things to be used during the performance.

In Phase 2 you actually deliver the performance and/or produce the product to be consumed.  This may take many iterations and rehearsal with content and test audiences and coaches/consultants to comment on and improve the product

In phase 3 you review live performance and work on editing and producing the final product for recorded performances.


To enhance presentations, the production models aid everyone to understand. the value of video as a tool and the roles different people play during the phases of production.  Every situation differs in needs and resources.  Thus,  the categories presented in this article provide insight into how to allocate resources and find support while preparing, performing, and publishing a presentation.  The key roles to aid in production include.


If you want to cite this blog article, please use the following:

Lipuma, J., & Leon, C. (2020, july 23). Presentation: Production Model Roles. James Lipuma´s Blog.


If you want to download an accessible PDF copy of this blog article, use the following link: